APA Style requires that manuscripts include the following sections, in the following order:
  • A cover or title page
  • An abstract page
  • Body of the paper
  • Reference List
Optional portions of the paper, to be inserted following the body of the paper and before the Reference List, may include:
  • Appendixes
  • Author note
  • Footnotes, listed on a separate page
  • Tables
  • Figure captions
  • Figures (graphs, photographs, or other illustrations)

Title Page. Abstract. First Page. Inside Page. Reference List.
Click to enlarge the illustrations

APA Style requirements for title pages differ slightly depending on the destination of the manuscipt. If you are submitting a paper to a journal for publication, you need to follow the guidelines for APA Format title pages exactly. For student papers, these requirements are sometimes modified to include the course name, instructor, and the date the paper is submitted.

For papers to be submitted for publication:

Page header and page number.
1/2 from the top of page, aligned to the right margin, type the page header: this should include the first two or three words of the paper title, and the page number. The cover page is page 1.

Running head.
The running head is typed on the line below the page header, flush left, in UPPERCASE, following the words "Running head:". It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.

Paper title.
About a third of the way down the page, type the title of the paper, centered on the page. Capitalize all the significant words in the title.

Author name and affiliation.
Beneath the title, center the name(s) of the author(s), and their institutional affiliations.


For student papers:
Instructors for undergraduate courses often require that the course name, instructor name, and date of submission be included on the cover page.

For dissertations and theses, university requirements sometimes call for the inclusion of additional components (e.g., an approval page, an acknowledgement page, a table of contents, a list of figures and tables, etc.).

Check with your instructor or graduate school to clarify any differences between their specific requirements and those of Standard APA Format for cover pages (as described above).

An abstract should be a brief summary of the paper's primary premise and findings, no more than 120 words.

For the abstract page, center the word "Abstract" at the top of the page, and then include the abstract for the paper, double spaced, and flush against the left margin.


The margins for your paper should be uniform on all sides, set to at least 1" or 2.54 cm on all sides: top, bottom, left and right. Line length for each typed line should be no more than 6.5" (16.51 cm), and the maximum number of lines of text per page is 27.


Double space all portions of the paper. This means you should leave a full line between each line of text in the paper.


1/2 inch from the top of each page, include a header, with the first two or three words of the title, and the page number.


Page numbering begins with the cover or title page.


Use an easily readable "serif" font (such as Palatino, Courier, or Times New Roman) in 12 point size.


Set the text alignment to "Left," so that the right edge of the text on the page is uneven.


Set the paragraph indentation to 5 spaces, or about 1/2 inch.


Space one once after periods, question marks, commas, colons, and semicolons. Do not space once after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., N.I.H.)

Other punctuation guidelines:

Hyphens: Run-of-the-mill.

em dash: Type as two hyphens, without spaces before or after--like this. en dash: Type as one hyphen, without spaces before or after, East-West trend.


Section headers help readers follow the organization of a discussion, and are an essential aspect of APA Format. The exact formatting of headings, however, is based on the structure of the paper -- the number of subsections contained in each main section of the discussion. To determine the format for the headings in your papers, you will need to consult your outline. It is an excellent idea, of course, to familiarize yourself with the APA section heading requirements before you begin drafting your outline.
ONE OR TWO LEVELS OF HEADINGS for short articles.

For short articles and most student papers, only one of two levels of section headings are needed:

Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Top Level Heading

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Second Level Section Heading


Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Top Level Heading

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Second Level Section Heading

     Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading, ending with a period.


Centered Uppercase and Lowercase First Level Heading

Centered, Italicized Uppercase and Lowercase Second Level Heading

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Third Level Section Heading

     Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading, ending with a period.



Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Second Level Heading

Centered, Italicized Uppercase and Lowercase Third Level Heading

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Fourth Level Section Heading

     Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading, ending with a period.


For short quotations (less than 40 words):
A quotation of less than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the sentence.
For long quotations (more than 40 words):
Longer quotations should be set apart from the surrounding text, without quotation marks, in block format, indented five spaces from the left margin, and double spaced.

If the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second paragraph about 1/2 inch (5 spaces).

Quotations within a quotation:
In block quotations, use double quotation marks to indicate that a phrase is a direct quote. For shorter quotations, use single quotation marks.
Material removed from a quotation:
Sometimes it is necessary, for brevity, to remove a portion of a paragraph.

Use an ellipsis to indicate that a portion of the quotation has been omitted: three periods with spaces before and after when the words have been omitted in the middle of a sentence, four periods (with spaces before and after) when the end of a sentence has been left out.

Material inserted into the quotation:
Sometimes it is necessary, for clarity, to insert a word into a direct quotation.

Use square brackets [like this] to highlight words that have been added to the quotation by someone other than the original author.

Remember that all quotations, as well as paraphrased text from your research materials must be properly cited.

Citations in the text of your paper should include the author's last name(s), the year of publication, and be enclosed in parentheses, and, when appropriate, should include a specific page reference. (Anderson, 2004, p. 223) If the author(s) names are mentioned in the same sentence, include only the year of publication. If the year of publication is mentioned in the text, include only the author's name in the cite.

Two authors
For works by two authors, always include both author names:

(Anderson & Bjorn, 2003)
As Anderson and Bjorn (2003) illustrated in their recent study
As recently as 2003, a prominent study (Anderson & Bjorn) illustrated
Three, four, or five authors
When a work has 3, 4, or 5 authors, include the names of all the authors the first time the work is cited:
(Anderson, Myers, Wilkes, & Matthews, 2003)
For all subsequent citations of this work, use "et al.":
(Anderson et al., 2003)
Six or more authors
When a work has 6 or more authors, use et al.:
(Bell et al., 2003)
Unsigned works
For unsigned works, include the title, enclosed in parentheses. Put quotation marks for short work titles, and italicize the titles of reports, books, and other significant works:
("Recent Developments," 2004)
(Dictionary of Tetrathalocigistic Diseases, 2004)

Citations in the body of your paper - "intext" citations
APA Style requires "Short Form" citations in the text of the document, along with an alphabetized Reference List.

Citations in the text of the document should include the author's surname, the year of publication, and, when there is a specific quote from a source used, a page number where the quote is located in the text.


APA 01. Journal article, one author, journal paginated consecutively throughout the volume
Wolf, E. (1990). Distinguished lecture: Facing power. American Anthropologist, 92, 586-596.
APA 02. Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue
Heilbrun, C., & Resnik, J. (1990). Convergences: Law, literature, and feminism. Yale Law Journal, 99, 1913-1950.
APA 03. Three to six authors
Evans, P., Preston, V., Jones, M., West, H., Cooper, B., & Williams, M. (2002). The astronomical timetable. New York: Preston Press.
APA 04. Journal article, more than six authors
Mercer, E., Faria, R., White, J. R., Brent, C., Moore, M., Zygler, J. E., et al. (2003). The myth of depression. Health Culture, 9, 221-229.
APA 05. Journal article in press
Myers, B., & Ansler, M. (in press). Left, right, forward?: Racism and radical politics. Journal of Politics and Culture.
APA 06. Magazine article
Miller, J. H. (2001, April). The next interpretation of nothing. Cultural Trends, 8+.
APA 07. Newsletter article
Broca, J. R. (2001, Fall). Artistic training as therapy. Art and Psychology Bulletin, 21, 83-87.
APA 08. Newsletter article, no author
Understanding the new regulations. (2002, May). Scioto Valley Newsletter, 9, 3-4.
APA 09. Daily newspaper article, no author
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.
APA 10. Daily newspaper article, discontinuous pages
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
APA 11. Monthly newspaper article, letter to the editor
Mays, E. S. (2001, 11 June). The business of business [Letter to the editor]. Wall Street Journal, p. 3.
APA 12. Entire issue of a journal; journal, special issue; special issue of a journal
Beasley, E. (Ed.). (2001). The new logic [Special issue]. Journal of Contemporary Philosophy, 9(6).
APA 13. Monograph with issue number and serial (or whole) number
Wisener, A., & Jameson, M. L. (2002). Parental understanding of pretense. Monographs of the Society for Research in Parenting, 78(3, Serial No. 422).
APA 14. Monograph bound separately as a supplement to a journal
Bishop, A. L., & Bishop, P. S. (1999). Atmospheric anomalies. Journal of Experimental Geography Monographs, 70(3, Pt. 2).
APA 15. Monograph bound into journal with continuous pagination
West, M. D., Evans, C. B., & Mays, W. (1999). Validity of the Type B personality [Monograph]. Journal of Cultural Psychology, 82, 344-426.
APA 16. Abstract as original source
Myers, W. L., & Jones, P. B. (1999). Cholinoceptive pyramidal cells [Abstract]. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 42, 320.
APA 17. Abstract from a secondary source
Burrows, W. R., Ellitch, P. B., & Wilson, J. R. (2000). Cognitive functions of adolescents: Urban vs. rural. American Journal of Cultural Neuroscience, 8, 22-46. Abstract obtained from PsycSCAN: Neuropsychology. 10 (Abstract No. 994).
APA 18. Journal supplement; supplement, to a journal
Rogers, J. W., Kinner, R. L., & Weis, V. (2000). The architecture of the gravitational lens. Astronomicity, 16(Suppl. 2), 170-192.
APA 19. Periodical published annually
Swidler, A., & Arditi, J. (1994). The new sociology of knowledge. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 305-329.
APA 20. Non-English journal article, title translated into English
Tremblay, G. (2000). La version française des lois constitutionnelles du Canada [The French version of the constitutional laws of Canada]. Les Cahiers de Droit, 41, 33-60.
APA 21. English translation of a journal article, journal paginated by issue
von der Luhe, I. (1982). I without guarantees: Ingeborg Bachmann's Frankfurt lectures on Poetics (M. T. Kraus, Trans.). New German Critique, 8(27), 31-56.
APA 22. Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
APA 23. Book, third edition, Jr. in name
Massey, W. R., & Jameson, W. M., Jr. (2001). Organizational behavior and the new internet logic (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
APA 24. Book, group author (government agency) as publisher
Aguidar Bureau of Statistics. (2001). Rural and urban birthrate statistics (No. 53.9877). Iswari, Asina-Waall Province: Author.
APA 25. Edited book
Gilbert, H. S., & Hart, L. N. (Eds.). (2000). Racism and mapmaking: Never a straight line?. New York: Preston Press.
APA 26. Book, no author or editor
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. (10th ed.). (1998). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
APA 27. Book, revised edition
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
APA 28. Several volumes in a multivolume edited work, publication over period of more than 1 year
Anderson, J. B. (Ed.). (1989-1999). A history of mythology and culture (M. Arlan, Ed.) (Vols. 1-10). New York: Preston Press.
APA 29. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
APA 30. Encyclopedia or dictionary
Sanborn, W. B. (Ed.). (2001). Dictionary of tribal mythologies (4th ed., Vols. 1-14). New York: Preston Press.
APA 31. Non-English book
Wolf, C. (1968). Nachdenken über Christa T. [The quest for Christa T.]. Halle: Mitteldeutscher Verlag.
APA 32. English translation of a book
Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline and punish (A. Sheridan, Trans.) (2nd ed.). Studies in Critical Theory. New York: Vintage Books (Original work published 1978).
APA 33. Brochure, corporate author
Winslow-Ames Consulting Group. (2003). Caring for the elderly: An intensive workshop (3rd ed.) [Brochure]. New York: Author.
APA 34. Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors
Gardener, E. D. (1988). Heretics. In S. Nevins & L. Bointer (Eds.), 16th Century England (pp. 327-384). London: Methaneon.
APA 35. Article or chapter in an edited book in press, separately titled volume in a multivolume work (two part title)
Anderson, W. R. (in press). Weakening the boundaries of insight. In J. Eddington & P. R. Burns (Eds.), Studies in military history. Vol. 2: Perspectives on racism: The new world order.. New York: Preston Press.
APA 36. Chapter in a volume in a series
Aarnsworth, E. (2002). Magnesotic irregularities in rock formations. In A. Beales & P. M. Jessing (Eds.), Handbook of Geology. Vol. 4: Southwestern US (5th ed., pp. 97-121). New York: Preston.
APA 37. Non-English article or chapter in an edited book, title translated into English
Bourdieu, P. (1989). L'opinion publique [Public opinion]. In P. Campagne (Ed.), 50 idées qui ébranlent le monde; dictonnaire de la Glasnost (pp. 204-206). Paris: P.U.F.
APA 38. Entry in an encyclopedia
Marchant, E. (2003). Gypsy oak. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 42, pp. 304-305). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
APA 39. English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, volume in a multivolume work, republished work
Altallan, M. (2001). The Oxbird legacy. In T. Boynes (Ed. & Trans), The standard edition of the complete works of Altallan (Vol. 22, pp. 14-64). New York: Preston Press (Original work published 1973).
APA 40. English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, reprinted from another source
Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget's theory (G. Gellerier, & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, 703-732, by P. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley).
APA 41. Report available from the government Printing Office (GPO), government institute as author
National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Psychodiagnosis: A bibliography (DHHS Publication No. 12-9022). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
APA 42. Report available from the National Technical Information Service
Cohen, B. G. (2003). Human aspects in espionage equipment. Denver, CO: National Institute for International Security (NTIS No. PB87-240722).
APA 43. Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)
Josse, P. L. (1999). Writing in the classroom: Teaching with journals (Report No. NCRSL-BB-25-6). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 988 082).
APA 44. Government report not available from GPO or a document deposit service such as the NTIS or ERIC
Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Progress report on the EPA acid rain program (EPA Publication No. 430-R-99-011). Rockville, MD: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
APA 45. Government report not available from GPO or a document deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection
Gergen, D. M. (2001). Religious affiliation and mental health. In J. Minden (Ed.), Psychological studies in rural populations (NDR Publication No. 93-42002, pp. 352-401). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
APA 46. Report from a university
Griggs, J. R., & Williams, H. M. (2001). Prevalence of land entitlement certificate forgeries (Tech. Rep. No. 17). Niederlanden, Eastern Isaawi: University of Guernsey, Crime Research Centre.
APA 47. Report from a university, edited report, monograph
Ansler, M. R., & Josse, F. (Eds.). (2001). Violence, media, and anxiety among adolescents (Redding Institute Research Monograph No. 25). New London: Weim University, Department of Education.
APA 48. Report from a private organization
Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1994, July). Baby boomers in retirement: What are their prospects? (Issue Brief No. 151). Washington, DC: Author.
APA 49a. Published proceedings, published contribution to a symposium, article or chapter in an edited book
Muller, A. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). The mind's outer eye. In Alaska Symposium on Perspectives. Vol. 43: Perspectives on perspective (pp. 237-288). Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press.
APA 49b. Published proceedings, published contribution to a symposium, article or chapter in an edited book
Muller, A. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Alaska Symposium on Perspectives. Vol. 43: Perspectives on perspective. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press.
APA 50. Proceedings published regularly
Woese, C. R. (2002). On the evolution of cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 8742-8747.
APA 51a. Unpublished contribution to a symposium
Beales, J. (2001, May). Beyond seeing: Cultural blindness and lettering [Fieldnote data summary and slide presentation]. In M. Wilkes (Chair), Textual perspectives. Symposium conducted at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Society, New York.
APA 51b. Unpublished contribution to a symposium
Miller, A. S. (2003, May). Slide presentation and field note summary. In M. L. Irons, (Chair), Storytelling in rural gatherings. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the RGS, Marseilles, France.
APA 52. Unpublished paper presented at a meeting
Shimahara, N. K. (1983, November 18). Mobility and education of Buraku: The case of a Japanese minority.. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago.
APA 53. Poster session
Durwith, N. (2001, June). Indexing surveys: Software that works.. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Political Science Society, Washington, DC.
APA 54. Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International and obtained on university microfilm
Winters, S. L. (2001). Health care programs and rural population growth (Diss, University of Agal, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 66, 834B (UMI No. AAD66-26988).
APA 55. Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International and obtained from university
Gans, E. L. (1982). The discovery of illusion (Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1981). Dissertation Abstracts International, 27, 3046A.
APA 56. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
Roberts, M. B. (2001). Land use and the law.. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois.
APA 57. Unpublished master's thesis, university outside the United States
Sanchez, E. (2001). Druidic dreams: Paluo's letters from the isle of Skye.. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Agal, Agal, West Zaapen, Dept English.
APA 58. Unpublished manuscript not submitted for publication
Myers, B. (1992). The regimental rituals.. Unpublished manuscript.
APA 59. Unpublished manuscript with a university cited
Nomiya, D. (1988). Urbanization and income inequality: A cross-national study.. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
APA 60. Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication but not yet accepted
Anderson, M. J. (2001). War and journalism: A brief history of history.. Manuscript submitted for publication (copy on file with author).
APA 61. Unpublished raw data from study, untitled work
Deaux, M., & Wise, A. R. (1993). [Auditory response latencies in rat auditory cortex]. Unpublished raw data.
APA 62. Publication of limited circulation
Chambers, W. R. (Ed.). (2002). INAC Projects. (Available from the Isaawian Nation Arts Council).
APA 63. Review of a book
Landower, A. (2002). Reading the ropes of the new reality [Review of the book Under glass ties: The new media fantasy of realism]. Contemporary Culture, 42, 533-567.
APA 64a. Review of a film or motion picture
Reiner, E. J. (2001, 20 May). Breaking away: A tradition of rebellion [Review of the motion picture Bernice's sandals] (dir. Anthony Peters). New Media, p. 45.
APA 64b. Review of a video
Betisse, N. (2001). Visual visor: A videotext of art history studies [Review of the video program Discovering Culture]. Contemporary Culture, 42, 3467-3499.
APA 65a. Audiovisual media, film or motion picture
Mendelson, I. (Producer) & Axelson, E. (Writer/director). (2001). One for the money [Motion picture]. United States: Siren Screens.
APA 65b. Film, limited circulation
Veron, E. (Producer) & Pickard, N. L. (Director). (1999). Tangoesque: light leg language [Motion picture]. (Available from Dance Am Inst., 73 West 74th, Suite 160, New York, NY 10023).
APA 66. Television broadcast
Lott, B., & Frank, S. H. (Prod.). (2001, Sept. 10). The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
APA 67. Television series
Michaels, D. A. (Producer). (2002). The heart [Television series]. New York: WNET.
APA 68. Single episode from a television series
Hall, B. (Writer) & Sackheim, D. (Director). (1999). The last word. In J. DeWitt, A. Brenneman, & N. Chaidez (Producters), Judging Amy [Television series episode]. New York: New York Broadcasting Company.
APA 69a. Music recording
Bruel, P. (1999). Au cafe des delices. On Juste Avant [CD]. Paris: MM Musique.
APA 69b. Rerecording by artist other than writer
Jones, J. (2002). The winding [Recorded by A. Berry, & P. Miller]. On Wind water and sand [CD]. Bay Point, RI: Real Records. (1982).
APA 70. Audio recording
Miro, J. L. (Speaker). (2001). Pressure, poison, and the physics of purity (Cassette recording No. 310-450-88-B). Washington, DC: International Society of Mystery Writers.
APA 71. Internet article based on a print source
Lessing, J. P. (2001). The physics of cultural magnets. Journal of Anthropological Studies, 8, 273-299. Retrieved July 3, 2002, from
APA 72. Article in an Internet-only journal
Jameson, E. S. (2002, June 12). Narrative therapy: A cure for care givers. Innovation in Treatment, 7, Article 0007a. Retrieved May 10, 2001, from
APA 73. Article in an Internet-only journal, retrieved via file transfer protocol
Mercer, K. R. (2001). The matter at hand: Chaos is nothing. Atomic Psychology, 6, Article056a. Retrieved 21 December 2001, from
APA 74. Article in an Internet-only newsletter
Cherchneff, I. (1997, July). The exhaust fumes of stars. Physics@UMIST Research Newsletter(2). Retrieved from
APA 75. Multipage document created by private organization, no date
Commit to be fit! Arlington Chapter. (n.d.). Heart helps: Ten 10 minute workouts. Retrieved August 5, 2002, from
APA 76. Chapter or section in an Internet document
Petrie Environmental Watch Center. (2002, Aug. 2). Recent conservation legislation. In Law and land use in Petrie County (section 2). Retrieved August 3, 2002, from
APA 77. Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date
TechNo's adolescent quotient questionnaire. (n.d.). Retrieved August 5, 2002, from
APA 78. Document available on university program or department web site
Reibel, J. H. (1994). Pedagogy for the 21st century. Retrieved January 1, 2002, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site:
APA 79. Report from a university, available on private organization web site
University of Manne, Center for Medical Education. (2001, December). Patients as effective educators in chronic conditions. Retrieved Aug. 2, 2002, from the Milbrook Memorial Fund Web site:
APA 80. US government report available on government agency web site, no publication date indicated
United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.). Federal sentencing statistics by state. Retrieved Aug 2, 2002, from
APA 81. Report from a private organization, available on organization web site
ResearchFirst, Ltd. (2001, Jan. 1). Conservation easements and land use. Retrieved May 2, 2002, from
APA 82. Abstract of a technical report retrieved from a university web site
Celifano, C. R., & Roland, W. M. (2001). Measured rates of glacial melting in 4 locations (ORSI Polar Research Institute Report No. 14). Abstract retrieved May 5, 2002, from
APA 83. Paper presented at a symposium, abstract retrieved from university web site
Dietrich, E. (2002, January 16). The left hand meets the right brain. Paper presented at the 2002 Symposium on Neurocentric Art. Abstract retrieved May 3, 2003, from
APA 84. Paper presented at a virtual conference
Genile, P. (2003). Natural wealth and the national agenda. Paper presented at the NatureWatch 2003 online conference. Retrieved May 16, 2003, from
APA 85. Message posted to a newsgroup
Williams, A. (2003, January 4). New tectonic tracking techniques [Msg 3]. Message posted to news://sci.geology.hawaii.
APA 86. Message posted to online forum or discussion group
Beales, M. S. (2003, February 2). Strategic planning software can replace post-it notes [Msg 26]. Message posted to
APA 87. Message posted to an electronic mailing list
Harris, B. (2003, March 4). Version tracking: Keeping records of editorial changes. Message posted to TheWriteDirection electronic mailing list, archived at
APA 88. Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database
Jameson, M. M., Wilson, A. E., & Myers, B. R. (2003). Managing managers in the changing workplace. Journal of Management and Culture, 43, 423-450. Retrieved April 15, 2003, from alaJOURNALS database.
APA 89. Daily newspaper article, electronic version available by search
Nottingham, B. (2003, March 3). Toying with industrial restraints. New Amsterdam Beacon.. Retrieved April 4, 2003, from
APA 90. Electronic copy of an abstract obtained from a secondary database
Otsu, T., & Saito, T. (1990). The problem of local optimality with OSMOD. Psychometrika, 55(3), 517-518. Abstract retrieved May 13, 2003, from PsycINFO database.
APA 91. Electronic version of US government report available by search from GPO Access database (on the web)
U.S. General Accounting Office. (1997, February). Telemedicine: Federal strategy is needed to guide investments (Publication no. GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). Retrieved September 15, 2000, from General Accounting Office Reports Online via GPO Access: html.
APA 92. Computer software
Erickson, R. S. (2003). Xcelcior.. (Computer software).
APA 93. Computer software and manual available on university web site
Benzinger, A. (2003). Anti-plagiarism software for educators []. (Computer software and manual).
APA 94. Data file, available from government agency
National Educator Interview Survey-Current education topics: 2003. (Version 6) [Data file]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Higher Education Statistics.
APA 95. Data file, available from NTIS web site
Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. (2003). National Extended Care Facility Roster [Data file]. Available from National Technical Information Service Web Site:

Creating intext citations and a Reference List with Citation Software

  1. Put the cursor in your paper where the intext citation should be placed, then go to Citation.
  2. In Citation, click View, Short List.
  3. Highlight the source work on the short list, and click Cite.

When you run Generate Citations for Document, your intext citations, as well as your References, will be written, formatted properly for APA Style.

Appendixes may be used to provide additional information to your readers that cannot be incorporated into the structure of your discussion. Appendixes are typically used to present unpublished tests or to describe complex apparatus or stimulus materials.

Type appendixes on a separate page, with the label "Appendix" and the identifying letter (A, B, C, etc) centered at the top of the page. If you have only one appendix, do not include a letter. The text in the appendix should follow the formatting rules for the body of your paper -- that is, double spaced, with the first lines of paragraphs indented five spaces.


It is often necessary to include tables in your paper to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses.

Label tables with the word "Table" and an arabic numeral (e.g., 1, 2, 3). Tables should be numbered according to the order in which they are mentioned in the paper. All column heads and subhead should be lower case and centered. Allow at least three spaces between columns.

Notes at the end of the table should be double spaced and flush left.

For more details on table formatting for APA style papers, see page 301 of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). The Figure Captions page provides a list of captions for the figures that follow.

Each figure included must have a caption that includes the figure number:

Figure 1. Floor plan of the testing area.
All figures should include (a) the manuscript page header and (b) the figure number, outside the image area.

If necessary, figures should include an indication of proper viewing orientation (e.g., "TOP"), if this is not readily apparent.

For more details on incorporating figures into your research paper, see page 302 of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Content footnotes are occasionally used to support information in the text.

Type footnotes on a separate page, with the title "Footnotes" centered at the top of the page. Footnotes should have the first line indented five spaces.